同位语从句引导词有哪些-同位语从句先行词口诀-同位语从句的基本结构成分宜城教育资源网手机版
同位语从句引导词有哪些-同位语从句先行词口诀-同位语从句的基本结构成分宜城教育资源网手机版

同位语从句与定语从句的区别

同位语从句和定语从句很相似,但还是有区别的,区别主要在以下方面:

1、意义的不同

同位语从句是用于说明所修饰名词的具体内容的,它与被修饰词语通常可以划等号,而定语从句是限制所修饰名词的,它的作用是将所修饰的名词与其他类似的东西区别开来:

We are glad at the news that he will come. 听到他要来这个消息我们很高兴。(news的内容就是that he will come,故that引导的是同位语从句)

We are glad at the news that he told us. 听到他告诉我们的这个消息我们很高兴。(that从句是限制the news的内容的,即我们高兴只是因为他告诉的这个news而不是其他的news,故that从句为定语从句)

同位语从句与定语从句的区别 

2、引导词的不同

what, how, if, whatever 等可引导名词性从句,但不引导定语从句

3、引导词的功能上的不同

that引导同位语从句时,它不充当句子成分,而引导定语从句时,它作为关系代词,要么充当定语从句的主语,要么充当定语从句的宾语。如上例 that he told us中的that就充当told的宾语。

4、被修饰词语的区别

同位语从句所修饰的名词比较有限,通常有hope, wish, idea, news, fact, promise, opinion, suggestion, truth等,而定语从句所修饰的名词则非常广泛。 另外,whenwhere 引导定语从句时,通常只修饰表示时间和地点的名词,而它们引导同位语从句时却不一定;又如why引导定语从句,它通常只修饰名词the reason,而它引导同位语从句时则不一定:

I’ll never forget the days when I lived there.. 我永远不会忘记我住在那儿的日子。(定语从句)

We don’t understand the problem why this is the best choice. 我们不明白这个问题,为什么这是最好的选择。(同位语从句 )

一、同位语从句的定义

在复合句主句中名词性成分之后与该名词性成分并列, 补充说明该名词性成分的有关情况的名词性从句, 被称为同位语从句。同位语从句的先行词通常为answer, hope, fact, truth, belief, news, idea, promise, information, conclusion, order, suggestion, problem, question, thought, report, belief, decision, doubt, opinion, theory等抽象名词。

同位语从句先行词口诀,同位语从句的基本结构成分 

二、同位语从句的引导词

引导同位语从句的词语通常有连词thatwhether,连接代词和连接副词等。

1、由that引导

例句:He referred to Copernicus’ statement that the earth moves round the sun. 他提到了哥白尼关于地球绕太阳转的说法。

【注意1】在某些名词(demand, wish, suggestion, resolution)后面的同位语从句要用虚拟语气。如:

They expressed the wish that she accept the award. 他们表示希望她接受这笔奖金。

【注意2】引导同位语从句的连词that通常不省略,但在非正式文体中也可以省去。如:

He gabbed his suitcase and gave the impression he was boarding the Tokyo plane. 他拿起了手提箱,给人的印象是他要登上飞往东京的飞机了。

2、由whether引导

例句:We are not investigating the question whether he is trustworthy. 我们不是在调查他是否可以信任的问题。

【注意】whether 可引导同位语从句,但if不能引导同位语从句。

3、由连接代词引导

例句:Have you any idea what time it starts? 你知道什么时候开始吗?

4、由连接副词引导

例句:I have no idea when he will come back. 我不知道他什么时候回来。

三、关于分离同位语从句

有时同位语从句可以和同位的名词分开。

例句:The news got about that he had won a car in the lottery. 消息传开说他中彩得了一辆汽车。

同位语从句是什么

同位语从句指的是在复合句中充当同位语的从句,属于名词性从句的范畴,同位语从句用来对其前面的抽象名词进行解释说明,被解释说明的词和同位语在逻辑上是主表关系。

  1. that引导同位语从句。

  在下列名词后可用that引导同位语从句answer, belief, doubt, fact, hope, idea, information, knowledge, law, news, opinion, plan, suggestion, thought, truth等。

  I had no idea that you were here.

  The story goes that William killed his wife.

  He always works hard in spite of the fact that he is not in good health.

  Suddenly the thought came to me that he would go blind.

  注意:

  位语从句引导词that无含义,不充当成分,不可省略。

  同位语从句与其说明的名词或代词为同一内容,故可以用is把前边的中心词和从句连接成一个句子。

  同位语从句前一般没有逗号。

  that引导同位语从句与引导定语从句的区别:that引导同位语从句时只起连接作用,不充当任何成分;that引导定语从句时,在从句中要作成分,如主语、宾语等。

  He told me the news that our team won.(that引导同位语从句)

  The news that / which he told me was very exciting.(that引导定语从句,在从句中作宾语)

  2. no idea, question, problem等后可用wh-疑问词引导同位语从句,if不引导同位语从句。

  I have no idea where he has gone.

  I have no idea what he said.

  3. 辨析:引导名词性从句时whatwhatever, whowhoever的区别:

  what whatever

  What you want has been sent here.(what = the thing(s) that/all that/anything that特指)

  Whatever you want makes no difference to me.(whatever = anything that泛指)

  What caused the accident was a broken bottle.(特指)

  Whatever caused the accident has not yet been found.(泛指)

  who whoever

  Who will go to Beijing on business has not been decided.(who表疑问,表示哪一个”)

  Whoever breaks the law should be punished.(whoever = anyone who,表示无论哪个人”)

  4. 同位语从句注意与定语从句区别,同位语从句对前一名词做补充说明,在从句中无语法位置,而定语从句所修饰词在从句中占一语法位置如:

  The idea that one can do the work without thinking is wrong.(同位idea在从句中无位置,而从句只是具体说明idea的内容)

  The idea that you put forward at the meeting is wrong.(定语从句,ideaput forward 的宾语)

 


非限定性定语从句的引导词用法-非限定性定语从句和

条件状语从句的引导词及用法-if引导的条件状语从句