非限定性定语从句的引导词用法-非限定性定语从句和限定性的区别宜城教育资源网手机版
非限定性定语从句的引导词用法-非限定性定语从句和限定性的区别宜城教育资源网手机版

非限定性定语从句和限定性的区别

  1先行词不同

限定性定语从句的先行词只能是名词或代词,而非限定性定语从句的先行词则可以是名词或代词,也可以是短语或句子;另外,当先行词为专有名词或其他具有独一无二性的普通名词时,通常要用非限制性定语从句,而不用限制性定语从句。

非限定性定语从句和限定性的区别 

2关系词不同

关系词thatwhy可用于限制性定语从句中,通常不用于非限制性定语从句;另外,在限制性定语从句中,关系词有时可以省略(参见本章有关内容),而在非限制性定语从句中关系词一律不省略。

3形式不同

限定性定语从句主句和从句之间不用逗号隔开,口语中使用时也不停顿;而非限定性定语从句与主句之间通常有逗号隔开,口语中使用时有停顿。

 4功能不同

限定性定语从句用于对先行词的意义进行修饰、限制和识别,如果去掉,就会造成句意不完整或概念不清;而非限定性定语从句用于对先行词起补充说明作用,如果省略,句意仍然清楚、完整。

 5翻译不同

在翻译定语从句时,一般把限定性定语从句翻译在它所修饰的先行词之前,而把非限定性定语从句与主句分开。

 6含义不同

比较下面的两个句子:

I have a sister who is a doctor. 我有一个医生的姐姐。(姐姐不止一个)

I have a sister, who is a doctor. 我有一个姐姐,她是当医生的。(只有一个姐姐)

非限定性定语从句是什么

非限定性定语从句在句既可以修饰先行词,也可用修饰前面的主句。它在句子中是一个独立成分,不受主句的限制,把从句去掉之后主句仍然成立,这也是为什么它会叫做非限定性定语从句。

非限制性定语从句与先行词以及主句之间的关系不甚紧密,因而通常要用逗号与主句分隔开。

非限定性定语从句的引导词 

例如:

Have you seen the film Titanic, whose leading actor is world famous?

你看过泰坦尼克号这部电影吗?它的男主演可是世界闻名的。

My friend, who has served on the International Olympic Committee all his life, is retiring next month.

我有位朋友,他一辈子服务于国际奥林匹克委员会,下个月就要退休了。

在非限制性定语从句也分成不同的种类,在不同情况下,该从句的使用方法也是不一样的,在考试中经常会考察大家对于该从句不同类型的运用。如果大家不能很好的掌握这些用法,在考试的时候就一定会丢分了,下面就是关于该从句不同类型的介绍:

(1) who引导的非限制性定语从句Our guidewho was a French Canadianwas an excellent cook.我们的向导,一个法裔加拿大人,擅长于烹调。My gardenerwho is very pessimisticsays that there will be no apples this year.我家的园丁非常悲观,他说今年将不结苹果。

(2) whom引导的非限制性定语从句关系代词whom用于指人,在句中作动词宾语和介词宾语,作介词宾语时,介词可位于句末。如:Peter, whom you met in London, is now back in Paris.彼得现在回巴黎了,你在伦敦见过他。Mr Smithfrom whom I have learned a lotis a famous scientist.史密斯先生是一位著名的科学家,我从他那儿学了许多东西。

(3) whose引导的非限制性定语从句 whose是关系代词who的所有格形式,在从句中作定语。whose通常指人,也可指动物或无生命的事物。如:The boy, whose father is an engineer, studies very hard.那位小男孩学习很努力,他的父亲是位工程师。Above the trees are the mountains whose magnificence the river faithfully reflects on the surface. 在树林的高处是山,其壮丽的景色完全映照在河面上。The playwhose style is rigidly formalis typical of the period.这剧本是那个时期的典型作品,风格拘谨刻板。

(4) which引导的非限制性定语从句 关系代词which在非限制性定语从句中所指代和修饰的可以是主句中的名词、形容词、短语、其他从句或整个主句,在从句中作主语、动词宾语、介词宾语或表语。

which指代主句中的名词,被指代的名词包括表示物、婴儿或动物的名词、表示单数意义的集体名词以及表示职业、品格等的名词。

如:These apple treeswhich I planted three years agohave not borne any fruit.这些苹果树是我三年前栽的,还没有结过果实。

She is an artistwhich I am not.她是一位艺术家,而我不是。

Waterwhich is a clear liquidhas many uses.水是一种清澈的液体,有许多用途。The two policemen were completely trustedwhich in fact they were.那两个警察完全受到信任,事实上,也真是如此。

which指代主句中的形容词。如:She was very patient towards the childrenwhich her husband seldom was.她对孩子们很耐心,她丈夫却很少这样。She is always carelesswhich we should not be. 她总是马虎大意,我们可不应该这样。

which指代主句中的某个从句。如:He said that he had never seen her beforewhich was not true.他说以前从没见过她,这不是真的。

which指代整个主句。如:In the presence of so many people he was little tense, which was understandable.在那么多人面前他有点紧张,这是可以理解的。He may have acute appendicitisin which case he will have to be operated on.他可能得了急性盲肠炎,如果是这样,他就得动手术。When deeply absorbed in workwhich he often washe would forget all about eating and sleeping. 他经常聚精会神地工作,这时他会废寝忘食。

(5) when引导的非限制性定语从句关系副词when在非限制性定语从句中作时间状语,指代主句中表示时间的词语。

如:He will put off the picnic until May 1st, when he will be free.他将把郊游推迟到51号,那时他将有空。

(6) where引导的非限制性定语从句关系副词where在非限制性定语从句中作地点状语,指代主句中表示地点的词语。

如:They went to Londonwhere they lived for six months.他们去了伦敦,在那儿呆了六个月的时间。

They reached there yesterday, where a negotiation of sale will be held.他们昨天抵达那里, 有一个关于销售的谈判在那儿举行。

(7) as引导的非限制性定语从句as引出非限定性定语从句时,代替整个主句,对其进行说明但通常用于像as we allaknow, as it is know, as is know to all, as it is, as is said above, as always mentioned above, as is usual, as is often the case, as is reported in the newspaper等句式中。as在非限定性定语从句中作主语、表语或宾语,且引出的从句位置比较灵活,可位于句首或句末,也可置于主句中间。通常均由逗号将其与主句隔开。as正如……, 就像……”之意。

如:As it known to the United States, Mark Twain is a great American writer.美国人都知道,马克?吐温是一位伟大的美国作家。(as在从句中作主语)

Boy as he was he was chosen king. 他虽是孩子,却被选为国王。(as在从句中作表语)

As we all know, the earth is round.众所周知,地球是圆的。 (as在从句中作宾语)

The two brothers were satisfied with this decisionas was agreed beforehand.两兄弟对此决定都满意,这项决定在事前都已得到他们的同意。(as在从句中作主语)

Taiwan isas you knowan inseparable part of China.你知道,台湾是中国不可分割的一部分。(as在从句中作宾语)

(8)“介词+关系代词引导的非限制性定语从句 在介词后引导非限制性定语从句。关系代词which有时并不代表主句中某一确定的词,而是概括整个主句的意思。介词的选择取决于它与先行词的搭配或与从句中谓语动词的搭配。

They were short of sticks to make frames for the climbing vineswithout which the yield would be halved. 他们缺搭葡萄架的杆儿,没有它们产量会减少一半。

They thanked Tomwithout whose support they would not have succeeded.这些邻居是北京来的,昨天我被介绍同他们认识了。

(9)“名词/代词+of+which / whom”引导的非限制性定语从句 

It now has 20000 hectares of landmore than two-thirds of which are under cultivation. 现在它拥有两万公顷土地,其中三分之二之多已经耕种。

Light is the fast thing in the world, the speed of which is 300.000 kilometeThere are 30 chairs in the small hall, most of which are new.大厅里有三十把椅子,绝大部分是新的。


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